Vatican issues new guidelines on disposal of cremated ashes

Cardinal Gerhard Muller, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, speaks at a Vatican news conference yesterday (CNS photo/Paul Haring)

Cardinal Gerhard Muller, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, speaks at a Vatican news conference yesterday (CNS photo/Paul Haring)

The Vatican yesterday issued new rules on the disposal of ashes following cremation in order to avoid disrespecting the dead or denying core Christian truths about the fate of the body.

In its Instruction, Ad Resurgendum cum Christo, which was approved by Pope Francis in March, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith says the Church continues to prefer that bodies be buried but that if cremation for good reasons occurs, the remains should be kept in a church or cemetery and not at home, and should not be scattered or used to make  objects.

Because of “the great dignity of the human body as an integral part of the human person whose body forms part of their identity” the Church cannot “condone attitudes or permit rites that involve erroneous ideas about death, such as considering death as the definitive annihilation of the person, or the moment of fusion with Mother Nature or the universe, or as a stage in the cycle of regeneration, or as the definitive liberation from the “prison” of the body,” the Instruction says.

The Vatican lifted its disapproval of cremation in 1963 “unless chosen for reasons contrary to Christian doctrine” but yesterday’s Instruction is in response to growing concern at the increasing popularity of disposing of ashes in ways that reflect pantheistic, naturalistic or superstitious beliefs.

The Instruction says that only in exceptional cases — presumably in places where Christians are persecuted, or in times of war — can ashes be kept at home. “From the earliest times, Christians have desired that the faithful departed become the objects of the Christian community’s prayers and remembrance,” the Instruction says, adding: “Their tombs have become places of prayer, remembrance and reflection.”

According to The Times today, about 75 per cent of those who die in Britain are cremated — double the number since the 1970s.

(For AP report, see Crux)

The text of the Instruction follows

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

Instruction Ad resurgendum cum Christo regarding the burial of the deceasedand the conservation of the ashes in the case of cremation 

To rise with Christ, we must die with Christ: we must “be away from the body and at home with the Lord” (2 Cor 5:8). With the Instruction Piam et Constantem of 5 July 1963, the then Holy Office established that “all necessary measures must be taken to preserve the practice of reverently burying the faithful departed”, adding however that cremation is not “opposed per se to the Christian religion” and that no longer should the sacraments and funeral rites be denied to those who have asked that they be cremated, under the condition that this choice has not been made through “a denial of Christian dogmas, the animosity of a secret society, or hatred of the Catholic religion and the Church”.1Later this change in ecclesiastical discipline was incorporated into the Code of Canon Law (1983) and the Code of Canons of Oriental Churches (1990).

During the intervening years, the practice of cremation has notably increased in many countries, but simultaneously new ideas contrary to the Church’s faith have also become widespread. Having consulted the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts and numerous Episcopal Conferences and Synods of Bishops of the Oriental Churches, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has deemed opportune the publication of a new Instruction, with the intention of underlining the doctrinal and pastoral reasons for the preference of the burial of the remains of the faithful and to set out norms pertaining to the conservation of ashes in the case of cremation.

The resurrection of Jesus is the culminating truth of the Christian faith, preached as an essential part of the Paschal Mystery from the very beginnings of Christianity: “For I handed on to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures; that he was buried; that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures; that he appeared to Cephas, then to the Twelve” (1 Cor 15:3-5). Through his death and resurrection, Christ freed us from sin and gave us access to a new life, “so that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life” (Rm 6:4). Furthermore, the risen Christ is the principle and source of our future resurrection: “Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep […] For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive” (1 Cor 15:20-22).

It is true that Christ will raise us up on the last day; but it is also true that, in a certain way, we have already risen with Christ. In Baptism, actually, we are immersed in the death and resurrection of Christ and sacramentally assimilated to him: “You were buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead” (Col 2:12). United with Christ by Baptism, we already truly participate in the life of the risen Christ (cf. Eph 2:6).

Because of Christ, Christian death has a positive meaning. The Christian vision of death receives privileged expression in the liturgy of the Church: “Indeed for your faithful, Lord, life is changed not ended, and, when this earthly dwelling turns to dust, an eternal dwelling is made ready for them in heaven”.2 By death the soul is separated from the body, but in the resurrection God will give incorruptible life to our body, transformed by reunion with our soul. In our own day also, the Church is called to proclaim her faith in the resurrection: “The confidence of Christians is the resurrection of the dead; believing this we live”.3

Following the most ancient Christian tradition, the Church insistently recommends that the bodies of the deceased be buried in cemeteries or other sacred places.4 In memory of the death, burial and resurrection of the Lord, the mystery that illumines the Christian meaning of death,5 burial is above all the most fitting way to express faith and hope in the resurrection of the body.6 The Church who, as Mother, has accompanied the Christian during his earthly pilgrimage, offers to the Father, in Christ, the child of her grace, and she commits to the earth, in hope, the seed of the body that will rise in glory.7

By burying the bodies of the faithful, the Church confirms her faith in the resurrection of the body,8 and intends to show the great dignity of the human body as an integral part of the human person whose body forms part of their identity.9 She cannot, therefore, condone attitudes or permit rites that involve erroneous ideas about death, such as considering death as the definitive annihilation of the person, or the moment of fusion with Mother Nature or the universe, or as a stage in the cycle of regeneration, or as the definitive liberation from the “prison” of the body. Furthermore, burial in a cemetery or another sacred place adequately corresponds to the piety and respect owed to the bodies of the faithful departed who through Baptism have become temples of the Holy Spirit and in which “as instruments and vessels the Spirit has carried out so many good works”.10 Tobias, the just, was praised for the merits he acquired in the sight of God for having buried the dead,11 and the Church considers the burial of dead one of the corporal works of mercy.12

Finally, the burial of the faithful departed in cemeteries or other sacred places encourages family members and the whole Christian community to pray for and remember the dead, while at the same time fostering the veneration of martyrs and saints.

Through the practice of burying the dead in cemeteries, in churches or their environs, Christian tradition has upheld the relationship between the living and the dead and has opposed any tendency to minimize, or relegate to the purely private sphere, the event of death and the meaning it has for Christians.

In circumstances when cremation is chosen because of sanitary, economic or social considerations, this choice must never violate the explicitly-stated or the reasonably inferable wishes of the deceased faithful. The Church raises no doctrinal objections to this practice, since cremation of the deceased’s body does not affect his or her soul, nor does it prevent God, in his omnipotence, from raising up the deceased body to new life. Thus cremation, in and of itself, objectively negates neither the Christian doctrine of the soul’s immortality nor that of the resurrection of the body.13

The Church continues to prefer the practice of burying the bodies of the deceased, because this shows a greater esteem towards the deceased. Nevertheless, cremation is not prohibited, “unless it was chosen for reasons contrary to Christian doctrine”.14 In the absence of motives contrary to Christian doctrine, the Church, after the celebration of the funeral rite, accompanies the choice of cremation, providing the relevant liturgical and pastoral directives, and taking particular care to avoid every form of scandal or the appearance of religious indifferentism.

When, for legitimate motives, cremation of the body has been chosen, the ashes of the faithful must be laid to rest in a sacred place, that is, in a cemetery or, in certain cases, in a church or an area, which has been set aside for this purpose, and so dedicated by the competent ecclesial authority. From the earliest times, Christians have desired that the faithful departed become the objects of the Christian community’s prayers and remembrance. Their tombs have become places of prayer, remembrance and reflection. The faithful departed remain part of the Church who believes “in the communion of all the faithful of Christ, those who are pilgrims on earth, the dead who are being purified, and the blessed in heaven, all together forming one Church”.15

The reservation of the ashes of the departed in a sacred place ensures that they are not excluded from the prayers and remembrance of their family or the Christian community. It prevents the faithful departed from being forgotten, or their remains from being shown a lack of respect, which eventuality is possible, most especially once the immediately subsequent generation has too passed away. Also it prevents any unfitting or superstitious practices.

For the reasons given above, the conservation of the ashes of the departed in a domestic residence is not permitted. Only in grave and exceptional cases dependent on cultural conditions of a localized nature, may the Ordinary, in agreement with the Episcopal Conference or the Synod of Bishops of the Oriental Churches, concede permission for the conservation of the ashes of the departed in a domestic residence. Nonetheless, the ashes may not be divided among various family members and due respect must be maintained regarding the circumstances of such a conservation.

In order that every appearance of pantheism, naturalism or nihilism be avoided, it is not permitted to scatter the ashes of the faithful departed in the air, on land, at sea or in some other way, nor may they be preserved in mementos, pieces of jewelry or other objects. These courses of action cannot be legitimized by an appeal to the sanitary, social, or economic motives that may have occasioned the choice of cremation.

When the deceased notoriously has requested cremation and the scattering of their ashes for reasons contrary to the Christian faith, a Christian funeral must be denied to that person according to the norms of the law.16

 The Sovereign Pontiff Francis, in the Audience granted to the undersigned Cardinal Prefect on 18 March 2016, approved the present Instruction, adopted in the Ordinary Session of this Congregation on 2 March 2016, and ordered its publication. 

Rome, from the Offices of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 15 August 2016, the Solemnity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary.


Gerhard Card. Müller, Prefect              

Luis F. Ladaria, S.I. , 

                                            Archevêque titulaire de Thibica



AAS 56 (1964), 822-823.

2 Roman Missal, Preface I for the Dead.

3 Tertullian, De Resurrectione carnis, 1,1: CCL 2, 921.

4 Cf. CIC, can. 1176, § 3, can. 1205; CCEO, can. 876, § 3; can. 868.

5 Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1681.

6 Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2300.

7 Cf. 1 Cor 15:42-44; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1683.

8 Cf. St. Augustine, De cura pro mortuis gerenda, 3, 5; CSEL 41, 628:

9 Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 14.

10 St. Augustine, De cura pro mortuis gerenda, 3, 5: CSEL 41, 627.

11 Cf. Tb 2:9; 12:12.

12 Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2300.

13 Cf. Holy Office, Instruction Piam et costantem, 5 July 1963: AAS 56 (1964) 822.

14 CIC, can. 1176 § 3; cf. CCEC, can. 876 § 3.

15 Catechism of the Catholic Church, 962.

16 CIC, can. 1184; CCEO, can.876, § 3.

Posted in Vatican guidelines/rules

The messages Francis wants to send with his cardinal choices

Cardinals of the Catholic Church advise the Pope and elect his successor.

Cardinals of the Catholic Church advise the Pope and elect his successor.

[Austen Ivereigh] There are few moments more enlightening about the direction a pope wants to take the Church than consistories to create cardinals, and Francis’s list of 17 men who will receive red hats on Nov. 19 is no exception.

His picks contain three overall messages, and a number of particular ones, which are local Church-specific, and have particular strategic objectives.

Leaving Europe behind 

The 13 under-80s – the so-called ‘electors’, who, once a conclave is called, will vote for Francis’s successor – will help to shape the future direction of the Church. Come November, 17 percent of the electors will have been named by St. John Paul II, 46 percent by Benedict XVI, and just over a third – 36 percent – by Francis.

Most obviously this, the pope’s third consistory, deepens his policy of de-Europeanizing the College of Cardinals in order to better reflect the southward shift in Catholicism’s center of gravity. (Two-thirds of Catholics now live in the global south).

Asked about his plans for new cardinals on the plane back from Azerbaijan, Francis said he wanted “to show the universality of the Church in the college of cardinals – not just the, let’s say, European center. A little bit of everywhere.”

If a conclave were held shortly after the November consistory, European nations would still have the largest single share of red hats (just under 45 per cent), but they are increasingly outweighed by non-European ones.

In 2015 there were five new voting cardinals from Europe, three from Latin America, three from Asia, two each from Africa and Oceania, and none from North America. This time there are three from Europe, three from Latin America, three from the United States, two from Africa, one from Asia, and one from Oceania.

Within the European bloc, meanwhile, the lack of Italians and curial cardinals is particularly striking.

Only Bishop Kevin Farrell of Texas, who has moved to Rome to take up his role as prefect of the council for laity and life, qualifies as a curial cardinal. A conclave held at the end of this year would be made up of 28 per cent curiali, compared with 35 per cent in the conclave that elected Francis.

Hearing from the peripheries

But Francis is not only seeking a geographical re-balance; he wants the College of Cardinals to include the voice of the ecclesiastical periphery.

Just as, in 2014, he picked bishops from Burkina Faso and Haiti, and in 2015 from Burma, Myanmar and Tonga, this time he has selected men from Papua New Guinea, Mauritius and Bangladesh. The presence of these red hats in a future conclave, Francis believes, will help prevent the euro-centric liberal-conservative polarizations of previous papal elections.

Men of Mercy

Appropriately, given that this consistory will take place just before the official closing of the Jubilee of Mercy, Francis’s third message is ‘pastoral conversion’. His choices-from 11 countries on five continents- reflect a Church that witnesses, as he put it, to “the mercy of God in every corner of the world.”

It is hard to find, among these names, one that is not signed up to Francis’s invitation to the Church to foreground mercy. Carlos Osorio, whom Francis named to Madrid in 2014, for example, often says that mercy is the viga maestra – the “buttress” or “main supporting beam”  – of the Church.

The other European red hat, Jozef de Kesel, was also appointed by Francis, in December last year, as Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels. A former auxiliary under Godfried Danneels – one of the veteran cardinals at the last conclave who advocated Jorge Mario Bergoglio as pope – de Kesel is a bridge-building pastoral theologian and man of dialogue who has none the less been firm in defending Catholic institutions from Belgian state pressure over euthanasia.

Both Osoro and Kesel follow on from traditionalist, culture-warrior archbishops (Antonio Rouco Varela in Madrid, André-Joseph Leonard in Brussels). By making them cardinals, Francis is furthering the pastoral conversion of the European Church.

Consolidating Latin America

Yet for all that Francis wants to bring in voices from Asia and Africa, the main gravitational center in this pontificate remains Latin America, home to nearly half of the world’s Catholics and the most likely provenance of the next pope.

In his first consistory in 2014 Francis appointed five new electors from his home continent, a one-off one-third increase in its representation in the College. In 2015 and 2016 he has named a total of six more – again, the single biggest increase in the College of any part of the world.

Compared with the US choices, which – as John Allen has analyzed at Crux – are designed to produce a gear-shift, the Latin-American picks are intended to consolidate its existing direction. All three men are heavyweights within the continent’s episcopal bodies, busy implementing the vision of Aparecida agreed at the General Conference of the Latin-American bishops (CELAM) in 2007.

Carlos Aguiar Retes, the Archbishop of Tlalnepantla just north of Mexico City, is a highly-regarded former president both of the Mexican bishops’ conference and CELAM, and very likely to be the next Archbishop of Mexico after Cardinal Norberto Rivera Carrera, the current Primate, turns 75 next year.

When I interviewed Aguiar Retes in his austere, nondescript modern office in Tlalnepantla in February I felt I was in the presence of a Mexican Francis: soft-spoken, humble, pastoral, steeped in the vision of Aparecida, deeply influenced by Jesuit spirituality, yet with a razor-sharp analytical mind.

Sérgio da Rocha, 57, is a young, high-flying bishop, also in the Aparecida mould, and active in CELAM. Named Archbishop of Brasilia by Benedict XVI in 2011 after spells as bishop in the poor and racially diverse north-east of the country, he was elected by a clear majority of his fellow bishops as president of the Brazilian bishops’ conference – the world’s largest -in April last year.

Da Rocha has been key to setting the Church’s direction based on dialogue, communion and mission, which he sees as implementing Evangelii Gaudium.

Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo, 72, the Archbishop of Mérida, Venezuela, is a veteran of the Church’s long battle with the authoritarian Hugo Chávez regime. A vocal and visible critic of Chávez while president of the bishops’ conference for two periods, from 1999 to 2006, he has long borne the brunt of state anticlerical propaganda.

His red hat, which means now that Venezuela will again have two cardinals, is both a reward for his courage and service and also a way of bolstering the Church’s position as the country descends into anarchy under Chávez’s disciple, President Nicolás Maduro.

The Vatican’s secretary of state, Cardinal Pietro Parolin, has said he is willing to mediate between the government and the opposition. In naming Porras cardinal, Rome leaves no doubt about its own position in favor of democracy and pluralism.

In sum, Francis’s 2016 consistory has some clear messages. It is designed to bring about or consolidate the pastoral conversion of the Church in the Americas, reducing the European and curial numbers while rewarding pastoralists in the old continent. It’s also intended to bring in young, diverse voices from the Church’s fast-growing periphery, while bolstering the Church in places where it needs all the help it can get.

[This article also appears at Crux, which is profiling the new cardinals. Eg Archbishop Mario Zenari here, Archbishop Patrick D’Rozario of Dhaka here, Archbishop Carlos Osoro here. More profiles to follow at Crux in the next few days.]

Posted in cardinals / consistory, global Church

Catholic commissions across Europe issue SOS for EU

The European Union is “in a bad shape” and trust in its institutions will not be restored by speeches and short-term measures but concrete actions to improve justice and quality of life.

That was the message of the General Assembly of the Conference of European Justice and Peace Commissions (known as “Justice & Peace Europe”), a Brussels-based alliance of 31 commissions in Europe attached to Catholic bishops’ conferences, and which promote Catholic social doctrine.

The General Assembly was responding to the EU Summit in Bratislava on 16 September, in which Jean Claude Juncker, the European Commission president, responded to Brexit with a five-point roadmap for investment, the digital single market, security, defence and youth. Noting “the continued controversy and disagreement among member states after the Brexit vote”, Justice & Peace Europe gathered on 3 October in Luxembourg, where it adopted the declaration that follows.

Its analysis shows that the next few months will be crucial for the future of the EU and that ciivl society institutions will need to play a crucial role in preventing its break-up.

Text of the statement follows:

1. The European Union is in bad shape. One important member state has decided to leave the European Union. Many others openly ignore or defy rules and decisions previously adopted together. Some are themselves struggling with unity. To bring things together again trust above all needs to be restored. Trust among member states and, clearly, the trust of citizens in politics in general and in the European institutions in particular. Trust in the European Union as still a valid response to the terrifying war and violence of the 20th century and to the challenges of globalisation in the 21st.

2. Trust in Europe will not result from declarations, roadmaps and speeches and certainly not in the short term. It will take years to rebuild what was lost and it will need substantial results in terms of quality jobs for young people, new opportunities for the poorest, more security for all and protection of the environment. It will require more transparent and democratic procedures. It will necessitate more respect for national, regional and local traditions, which are threatened by global market forces, and more social justice in terms of taxation and opportunities for the poorest in Europe and worldwide.

3. The European Union brings together democratic nation states. It does not replace them and its survival depends on stable and clear majorities in favour of the EU within them. Having this in mind, the next twelve months will present a number of electoral challenges. Several elections and referenda may further weaken popular support for the EU. Governments are usually less inclined to take bold political steps just before important elections. Therefore the months ahead are also very much the time for civil society to take the lead and promote the European Union. Christian Churches will play their part in this.

4. Thus, we welcome the process of consultation between the Conference of European Churches and its membership leading to the next CEC General Assembly in 2018, which was launched last June. Over the next twelve months the Catholic bishops of the EU countries (COMECE) will actively prepare for their major Congress on the future of Europe in Rome 2017. National initiatives like the Semaines Sociales de France will devote their annual gathering in 2017 to the European question. Furthermore, we thank Pope Francis for his committed interest in Europe and for the powerful speeches he gave in 2015 in the European Parliament and at the conferral of the Charlemagne Prize in 2016.

5. Justice and Peace Europe, our own network, is devoted to peace and social justice in the world and we have decided to call our next annual concerted action “Europe at the Crossroads”. The guiding document for the concerted action will be published at the beginning of Lent 2017 and it will include ten concrete policy proposals. National commissions will initiate local activities on the basis of the document and the proposals.

6. Meanwhile, we wish to state our strong commitment to the European Union. We hope that the peoples and nations of our continent continue the path of close cooperation and overcome the current difficulties. Gloomy prophecies often predict the economic and demographic decline of Europe in the course of the 21st century. A possible break up of the European Union would certainly accelerate this process. Improving the European Union and bringing it ever closer to its citizens are the best way to prevent it. Christianity is not a religion of decline but is uplifting. It is a religion of hope. As Christians in Europe we therefore appeal to our fellow citizens and especially those who hold political responsibilities to contribute to a Europe of responsibility and solidarity.

Posted in Europe

Acknowledging differences, Francis and Welby send out bishops to work for peace and the poor


Pope Francis, left, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, arrive for vespers prayers in the church of San Gregorio al Celio, in Rome, Wednesday, Oct. 5, 2016. (AP Photo/Gregorio Borgia)

Pope Francis, left, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, arrive for vespers prayers in the church of San Gregorio al Celio, in Rome, Wednesday, Oct. 5, 2016. (AP Photo/Gregorio Borgia)

[Austen Ivereigh] At a joint prayer service this evening at the church in Rome from where Augustine set forth to evangelize England, Pope Francis and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, marked the 50th anniversary of their predecessors’ historic meeting — the first since the Reformation. (For background, see CV Comment here.)

The music at the Vespers at St Gregory on the Caelian Hill — whose prior, later known as St Augustine of Canterbury, was sent by Pope Gregory the Great to England — was led by the choir from Canterbury Cathedral together with the Sistine Chapel choir. Among the congregation were Anglican and Catholic bishops from around the world who are in Rome this week to mark the 50th anniversary of their ecumenical dialogue.

Both pope and archbishop addressed the congregation, before symbolically sending out the bishops present in pairs — one Catholic, one Anglican — in a joint mission described in a common declaration. (See texts below).

In his address, Pope Francis noted how “as brothers who belong to different traditions” they were nonetheless “driven by the same Gospel to undertake the same mission in the world.” Therefore, he said, “it would be always good, before embarking on any activity, for you to put these questions to yourselves: Why ought not we do this together with our Anglican brothers?; Can we bear witness to Jesus by acting together with our Catholic brothers?”

Referring to the pastoral staff of St Gregory which is kept in the church, the Pope urged the bishops of both traditions to follow the example of Jesus, the Good Shepherd, telling them: “It is in sharing the difficulties and joys of the ministry that we once again grow close to each other.”

The declaration notes that, despite many difficulties and disagreements that cannot be immediately resolved — it mentions the ordination of women and “more recent questions regarding human sexuality”  — the two Churches were called to work together more closely. “Our ability to come together in praise and prayer to God and witness to the world rests on the confidence that we share a common faith and a substantial measure of agreement in faith,” it notes.

The world “must see us witnessing to this common faith in Jesus by acting together,” the declaration goes on, before giving examples of this joint mission on issues such as combat climate change and combatting “a culture of waste” where the most vulnerable of people in society are marginalised and discarded.

Pope and archbishop then sent out the pairs of bishops, with the words: “Let their ecumenical mission to those on the margins of society be a witness to all of us, and let the message go out from this holy place, as the Good News was sent out so many centuries ago, that Catholics and Anglicans will work together to give voice to our common faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, to bring relief to the suffering, to bring peace where there is conflict, to bring dignity where it is denied and trampled upon. ”

He urged them to be “promoters of a bold and real ecumenism, always on a journey in search of opening new paths.” This is always and above all, he said, a matter of following the example of the Lord, his pastoral methodology, of which the prophet Ezekiel reminds us: to seek out the lost one, bring back the stray, bandage the wounded, heal the sick. Only thus, the Pope said, “shall the scattered people be brought together”

Texts follow of  Pope Francis’s address at Vespers, plus that of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, followed by their joint declaration.


The prophet Ezekiel, with an eloquent image, describes God as a shepherd herding his scattered sheep. They were separated from each other “in the day of clouds and thick darkness” (Ez 34,12). The Lord seems thus, through the Prophet, to turn to us with a twofold message. First, a message of unity: God, as Shepherd, desires the unity of His people, and he especially desires those appointed as Shepherds under him to spend themselves in pursuit of unity. Second, the reason we are told of the divisions in the flock: in the days of clouds and thick darkness, we lost sight of the brother who stood beside us, we became unable to recognize and rejoice in our respective gifts and in the graces we’ve received. This happened because the darkness of incomprehension and suspicion and, overhead, the dark clouds of disagreements and disputes, gathered around us – often formed for historical and cultural reasons and not only for theological reasons.

But we have the firm belief that God loves to dwell among us, who are his flock and precious treasure. He is a tireless pastor who continues to act (cf. Jn 5:17), encouraging us to walk towards greater unity, which can only be achieved with the help of His grace. Therefore we remain confident, because in us, even though we are fragile earthen vessels (cf. 2 Cor 4,7), God loves to pour out his grace. He is convinced that we can move from darkness to light, from dispersion to unity, from wanting to plenitude. This path of communion is the path of all Christians and is your particular mission, for you are the shepherds of the International Anglican-Roman Catholic Commission for Unity and Mission.

It’s a great vocation, to work as instruments of communion always and everywhere. This means promoting at the same time the unity of the Christian family and the unity of the human family. These two areas are not just opposed but mutually enriching. When, as disciples of Jesus, we offer our services jointly, each opening and meeting, overcoming the temptation  to close ourselves off and insulate ourselves, we promote the unity of Christians as well as that of the human family. We recognize ourselves as brothers who belong to different traditions, but driven by the same Gospel to undertake the same mission in the world. Then it would be always good, before embarking on any activity, for you to ask of yourselves these questions: Why ought not we do this together with our Anglican brothers? Can we bear witness to Jesus by acting together with our Catholic brothers?

It is in sharing the difficulties and joys of the ministry that we once again grow close to each other. May God grant you to be promoters of a bold and real ecumenism, always on a journey in search of opening new paths, which will benefit in the first place your brothers in the Provinces and the Episcopal Conferences. This is always and above all a matter of following the example of the Lord, his pastoral methodology, of which the prophet Ezekiel reminds us: to seek out the lost one, bring back the stray, bandage the wounds, heal the sick (cf. v. 16). Only thus shall the scattered people be brought together.

I would like to refer to our common journey in the footsteps of Christ the Good Shepherd, inspired by the pastoral staff of St. Gregory the Great, which might well symbolize the great ecumenical significance of this meeting. Pope Gregory, from this wellspring of mission, chose and sent St. Augustine of Canterbury and his monks to the Anglo-Saxon nations, inaugurating a great chapter in evangelization, which is our common history, and binds us inseparably. Therefore it is right that this pastoral staff be a symbol of our shared journey of unity and mission.

At the center of the curved part of the staff is represented the Risen Lamb. Thus, while reminding us of the will of the Lord to gather the flock and go in search of the lost sheep, the staff also seems to show us the central content of the love of God in Jesus crucified and risen, the Lamb sacrificed and living. It is love that penetrated the darkness of the sealed tomb, and opened the doors to the light of eternal life. The love of the Lamb victorious over sin and death is the true innovative message to carry together to those who are lost today, and to those who still do not have the joy of knowing the compassionate face and merciful embrace of the Good Shepherd. Our ministry consists in illuminating the darkness with this gentle light, with the meek power of love that conquers sin and overcomes death. We have the joy to recognize and celebrate the heart of the faith. Let us once again make that our center and focus, without being distracted by that, which, enticing us to follow the spirit of the world, would detract from the original freshness of the Gospel. From there comes our shared responsibility, the one mission to serve God and humanity.

It was also pointed out by some authors that the pastoral staves, at the other end, often have a pointed tip. It may well think that the ministry not only recalls the vocation to lead and gather the sheep in the name of the Risen Christ, but also to prod those that tend to stand too close and shut in, urging them to get out. The mission of the pastors is to help the flock entrusted to them, that it be always out-going, on the move to proclaim the joy of the Gospel; not closed in tight circles, in ecclesial “microclimates” which would take us back to the days of clouds and thick darkness. Together we ask God for the grace to imitate the spirit and example of the great missionaries, through which the Holy Spirit has revitalized the Church, which is revived when she goes out of her own accord on the ways of the world to live and proclaim the Gospel. Let us remember what happened in Edinburgh, at the origins of the ecumenical movement: it was precisely the fire of mission that allowed us to begin to overcome the barriers and break down the fences that isolated us and made a common path unthinkable. Let us pray together for this: the Lord grant us that from here might arise a renewed élan for communion and mission.

(Unofficial translation by Vatican Radio)


The Israelites in the slave labour camps outside Babylon knew about fault and responsibility. In the passage just before this they hear from Ezekiel whom to blame for their exile: it is the bad shepherds, their failed leaders. In the following passage they are told that their desperate plight is also their own fault. There are bad sheep as well as bad shepherds.

In this passage, sandwiched between bad shepherds and bad sheep, it is God who says that He Himself will act. He seeks, he rescues, he feeds, he cares for the weak, but the fat and strong, who can only have become so by evil means, are to be destroyed. We are the sheep, and our Shepherd is God himself. In that sentence is all our hope, our certainty that the Church will live through all its struggles and vicissitudes, for the Good Shepherd finds, cares, judges, and restores. Yet in our confidence, we must not forget the warnings.

We cannot be bad shepherds, for they are rejected. When we fight, and when we lose the obligation of sharing mercy and forgiveness, we not only disobey the explicit prayer and command of Our Lord , but also we become shepherds who devour. The church becomes a circus for gladiatorial combat, in which the losers are shown no mercy.  Augustine, commenting on Psalm 32, says of the Donatists, “Let us grieve for them, my friends, as though they were our own brothers and sisters. For that is what they are, whether they like it or not.”  The wonderful power of the Year of Mercy is in its appeal to the merciful heart of God, in which we must be merciful to each other.

We cannot either be bad sheep, by becoming inward looking, and turning from the Saviour who has gone before us to the poor, the migrant, the slave and the refugee. The Good Shepherd is seeking his people, the fullness of our life is found when we seek with him. Last Christmas, in my chapel, we heard the testimony of a young, trafficked sex worker who had been found by Christians, and through them found the Good Shepherd. We all wept at hope renewed and a journey of healing begun.

While we rejoice that our Good Shepherd is the one who rescues, we also know that we are called to be his feet and hands and mouth. The mouth that calls, the hands that pick up, the feet that cross any obstacle to find the lost sheep and bring it home.

My prayer is always that as God’s family, we are those who look out into a world that is like sheep without a shepherd, where the weak, the unborn, the trafficked, the dying, are treated as inconveniences. Not only do we look, but we respond, saying to the Good Shepherd, “here we are, send us”.

3. COMMON DECLARATION of His Holiness Pope Francis and His Grace Justin Welby Archbishop of Canterbury

Fifty years ago our predecessors, Pope Paul VI and Archbishop Michael Ramsey met in this city hallowed by the ministry and blood of the Apostles Peter and Paul. Subsequently, Pope John Paul II with Archbishop Robert Runcie, and later with Archbishop George Carey, and Pope Benedict XVI with Archbishop Rowan Williams, prayed together here in this Church of Saint Gregory on the Caelian Hill from where Pope Gregory sent Augustine to evangelise the Anglo-Saxon people. On pilgrimage to the tombs of these apostles and holy forebears, Catholics and Anglicans recognize that we are heirs of the treasure of the Gospel of Jesus Christ and the call to share that treasure with the whole world. We have received the Good News of Jesus Christ through the holy lives of men and women who preached the Gospel in word and deed and we have been commissioned, and empowered by the Holy Spirit, to be Christ’s witnesses “to the ends of the earth” (Acts 1: 8). We are united in the conviction that “the ends of the earth” today, is not only a geographical term, but a summons to take the saving message of the Gospel particularly to those on the margins and the peripheries of our societies.

In their historic meeting in 1966, Pope Paul VI and Archbishop Ramsey established the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission to pursue a serious theological dialogue which, “founded on the Gospels and on the ancient common traditions, may lead to that unity in truth, for which Christ prayed”. Fifty years later we give thanks for the achievements of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission, which has examined historically divisive doctrines from a fresh perspective of mutual respect and charity. Today we give thanks in particular for the documents of ARCIC II which will be appraised by us, and we await the findings of ARCIC III as it navigates new contexts and new challenges to our unity.

Fifty years ago our predecessors recognized the “serious obstacles” that stood in the way of a restoration of complete faith and sacramental life between us. Nevertheless, they set out undeterred, not knowing what steps could be taken along the way, but in fidelity to the Lord’s prayer that his disciples be one. Much progress has been made concerning many areas that have kept us apart. Yet new circumstances have presented new disagreements among us, particularly regarding the ordination of women and more recent questions regarding human sexuality. Behind these differences lies a perennial question about how authority is exercised in the Christian community. These are today some of the concerns that constitute serious obstacles to our full unity. While, like our predecessors, we ourselves do not yet see solutions to the obstacles before us, we are undeterred. In our trust and joy in the Holy Spirit we are confident that dialogue and engagement with one another will deepen our understanding and help us to discern the mind of Christ for his Church. We trust in God’s grace and providence, knowing that the Holy Spirit will open new doors and lead us into all truth (cf. John 16: 13).

These differences we have named cannot prevent us from recognizing one another as brothers and sisters in Christ by reason of our common baptism. Nor should they ever hold us back from discovering and rejoicing in the deep Christian faith and holiness we find within each other’s traditions. These differences must not lead to a lessening of our ecumenical endeavours. Christ’s prayer at the Last Supper that all might be one (cf. John 17: 20-23) is as imperative for his disciples today as it was at that moment of his impending passion, death and resurrection, and consequent birth of his Church. Nor should our differences come in the way of our common prayer: not only can we pray together, we must pray together, giving voice to our shared faith and joy in the Gospel of Christ, the ancient Creeds, and the power of God’s love, made present in the Holy Spirit, to overcome all sin and division. And so, with our predecessors, we urge our clergy and faithful not to neglect or undervalue that certain yet imperfect communion that we already share.

Wider and deeper than our differences are the faith that we share and our common joy in the Gospel. Christ prayed that his disciples may all be one, “so that the world might believe” (John 17: 21). The longing for unity that we express in this Common Declaration is closely tied to the desire we share that men and women come to believe that God sent his Son, Jesus, into the world to save the world from the evil that oppresses and diminishes the entire creation. Jesus gave his life in love, and rising from the dead overcame even death itself. Christians who have come to this faith, have encountered Jesus and the victory of his love in their own lives, and are impelled to share the joy of this Good News with others. Our ability to come together in praise and prayer to God and witness to the world rests on the confidence that we share a common faith and a substantial measure of agreement in faith.

The world must see us witnessing to this common faith in Jesus by acting together. We can, and must, work together to protect and preserve our common home: living, teaching and acting in ways that favour a speedy end to the environmental destruction that offends the Creator and degrades his creatures, and building individual and collective patterns of behaviour that foster a sustainable and integral development for the good of all. We can, and must, be united in a common cause to uphold and defend the dignity of all people. The human person is demeaned by personal and societal sin. In a culture of indifference, walls of estrangement isolate us from others, their struggles and their suffering, which also many of our brothers and sisters in Christ today endure. In a culture of waste, the lives of the most vulnerable in society are often marginalised and discarded. In a culture of hate we see unspeakable acts of violence, often justified by a distorted understanding of religious belief. Our Christian faith leads us to recognise the inestimable worth of every human life, and to honour it in acts of mercy by bringing education, healthcare, food, clean water and shelter and always seeking to resolve conflict and build peace. As disciples of Christ we hold human persons to be sacred, and as apostles of Christ we must be their advocates.

Fifty years ago Pope Paul VI and Archbishop Ramsey took as their inspiration the words of the apostle: “Forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press towards the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus” (Philippians 3: 13-14). Today, “those things which are behind” – the painful centuries of separation –have been partially healed by fifty years of friendship. We give thanks for the fifty years of the Anglican Centre in Rome dedicated to being a place of encounter and friendship. We have become partners and companions on our pilgrim journey, facing the same difficulties, and strengthening each other by learning to value the gifts which God has given to the other, and to receive them as our own in humility and gratitude.

We are impatient for progress that we might be fully united in proclaiming, in word and deed, the saving and healing gospel of Christ to all people. For this reason we take great encouragement from the meeting during these days of so many Catholic and Anglican bishops of the International Anglican-Roman Catholic Commission for Unity and Mission (IARCCUM) who, on the basis of all that they have in common, which generations of ARCIC scholars have painstakingly unveiled, are eager to go forward in collaborative mission and witness to the “ends of the earth”. Today we rejoice to commission them and send them forth in pairs as the Lord sent out the seventy-two disciples. Let their ecumenical mission to those on the margins of society be a witness to all of us, and let the message go out from this holy place, as the Good News was sent out so many centuries ago, that Catholics and Anglicans will work together to give voice to our common faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, to bring relief to the suffering, to bring peace where there is conflict, to bring dignity where it is denied and trampled upon.

In this Church of Saint Gregory the Great, we earnestly invoke the blessings of the Most Holy Trinity on the continuing work of ARCIC and IARCCUM, and on all those who pray for and contribute to the restoration of unity between us.

Rome, 5 October 2016



Posted in Anglicans/CofE, Christian unity, Pope Francis address | Tagged , , ,

When Canterbury and Rome meet in a common mission

Pope Francis exchanges greetings with Anglican Archbishop Justin Welby of Canterbury, England, at an interfaith peace gathering at the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi, Italy, Sept. 20. (CNS photo/Paul Haring)

Pope Francis greets Archbishop Justin Welby of Canterbury, England, at an interfaith peace gathering at the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi, Italy, Sept. 20. (CNS photo/Paul Haring)

[Austen Ivereigh] In the history of this pontificate, October 2016 may come to be seen as the focal point of Christian unity initiatives — beginning with the Orthodox and ending with the Protestants, with the Anglicans (appropriately) sandwiched between the two.

The Pope began the month with a landmark visit to Georgia – where the Orthodox Church is at its most conservative and suspicious of Rome – not long after the news that a document has come to an agreed Catholic-Orthodox position on the vexed questions of “synodality and primacy” during the first millennium.

Given that differences on the synodal structure of the Church and the primacy of the Pope are two of the greatest obstacles to unity between Catholics and Orthodox believers, the document – which has not yet been published – will help to deepen the ties Francis has established with Patriarch Kirill of Moscow in Cuba in February and Georgia’s Patriarch Ilia II.

At the end of the month, meanwhile, all eyes will be on Francis’s visit to Sweden for the joint Catholic-Lutheran commemoration of  the 500th anniversary of Martin Luther’s 95 theses, which he nailed to the church door in Wittenberg, Germany. (Technically, the anniversary is October next year, but the year-long commemoration begins this month.)

Again, the meeting will add a personal and symbolic warmth to preceding theological rapprochement, demonstrated recently by a U.S. Lutheran declaration that there are no longer “church-dividing issues” with the Catholic Church on questions of church, ministry and the Eucharist.

But this week is all about Anglicans, hundreds of whom are gathering in Rome for a series of events to mark a half-century of Anglican-Catholic search for unity.

This evening Pope Francis will pray with the leader of the 80m-strong Anglican Communion, Justin Welby, on the 50th anniversary of the first meeting since the Reformation of a pope and an archbishop of Canterbury.

The church where the Vespers will be held (the Sistine Chapel choir will be joining forces with the choir of Canterbury Cathedral to provide the polyphony) is significant: in 597, the prior of the monastery church of San Gregorio al Celio was none other than St Augustine of Canterbury, whom Pope Gregory I sent that year to evangelize England – “this barbarous, fierce and unbelieving nation,” as he described it.

In between that event and the historic 1966 meeting of Michael Ramsey and Blessed Paul VI is a long and complex history in which the Reformation is only part of the story. While one strain of the Church of England is pretty much indistinguishable from Protestantism, another part can sometimes seem more Catholic than the Catholics.

In between is the Anglican mainstream, which at least in England considers itself not so much the product of the Reformation as a reformed version of historic Catholicism.

The 1966 meeting led  to the setting up of the Anglican Center  – known as the ‘Anglican embassy to Rome’ – to help further the understanding between the two Churches. It also sparked a series of bilateral meetings and agreed documents under the auspices of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC).

New Zealand Archbishop David Moxon, who heads the Center, says the official dialogues have produced  “about 85 per cent agreement over basic core doctrine” – including Baptism and Eucharist, missiology and the use of the Bible.

Yet while there will be more of that dialogue this week – including a colloquium at the Gregorian University – the stress now is on joint action and common witness, especially what Moxon describes as “a practical partnership in mission.”

Joining the Pope and the Archbishop of Canterbury at their joint Vespers at San Gregorio church tonight will be 19 pairs of 36 Anglican and Catholic bishops brought together by the other main dialogue body, the International Anglican-Roman Catholic Commission for Unity and Mission (IARCCUM). The 19 pairs will be symbolically sent out on mission together by Francis and Welby.

Writing in the English Catholic weekly The Tablet, Moxon says that the two Churches “are capable of formally agreeing on much more, in the areas of biothics, euthanasia, modern slavery, climate change, and many other justice-and-peace issues.” Such a joint mission, he says, “witnesses to the presence of God in ways that are as potent as a great prayer or an uplifting liturgy.”

That will be a key theme of discussion when, tomorrow morning, Archbishop Welby meets Francis in the company of about 20 Anglican bishops – about half of the leaders of the Communion’s 38 provinces, the most populous of which are now in the global South.

The fact that not all are coming is a sign of the deep fractures within the Anglican Communion, which is a loose federation of national Churches rather than a unitary body.

Moxon is full of praise for what he calls Pope Francis’s “extroverted ecumenism,” and is convinced that joint mission will be the main driver of unity between the Churches. If mission starts to drive ecumenism, says Moxon, both sides will “find God drawing us together.”

That, of course, chimes exactly with Francis’s repeated calls for Christians to be and act together in the service of the Kingdom rather than spend time in introverted, intellectual dialogue, which risks closing off the action of the Holy Spirit.

At the background of this week, therefore, is a longstanding recognition that – given differences over authority, the Eucharist, and the priesthood – institutional unity is too far-off a goal to reach for, and that it is better to focus on concrete joint actions in the here and now.

One side effect of this “extroverted ecumenism” may well be to help resolve the Anglican Church’s own crisis of identity.

Last year San Gregorio sent its valuable relic, the head of the crozier of St. Gregory the Great, to the Anglican Primates’ Meeting, which was attempting to resolve the longstanding dispute within the Communion over homosexuality.

Whether its presence helped is not clear, but it was a sign that the Successor of St. Peter cares not just about the unity of the Catholic Church, but the whole of Christendom.

[This article also appears at Crux.]

Posted in Anglicans/CofE, Christian unity, Pope Francis

Francis blasts gender theory but urges pastoral care for trans people

Pope Francis on the flight from Azerbaijan, flanked by Greg Burke, director of the Holy See Press Office.

Pope Francis on the flight from Azerbaijan, flanked by Greg Burke, director of the Holy See Press Office.

[Austen Ivereigh] Jesus would welcome and walk with transgender people even if they undergo sex-change operations, but ‘gender theory’ is a form of indoctrination that should be resisted, Pope Francis said on the papal flight last night from Azerbaijan.

He was responding to a question by Joshua McElwee of the National Catholic Reporter about his remarks on Saturday that gender theory represented “a global war against the family” that seeks to destroy with ideas rather than weapons (see Crux). Pope Francis began his answer by describing how he had always walked with gay people, whether or not they were chaste.

“I have accompanied them and I have brought them close to the Lord, although some can’t,” he said, adding that “we have to walk with people the way Jesus does. When a person with that condition comes to Jesus, He would surely not say, ‘Go away, because you’re homosexual!’.”

He went on to explain that his words on Saturday were directed at the “nastiness that happens these days with the indoctrination of gender theory”.

Gender theory holds that while “sex” is biologically determined, “gender” is a cultural convention which should be a subjective choice; in other words, gender is what the person believes himself or herself to be, rather than what is determined by sex.

Francis illustrated the pervasiveness of this theory by recalling a conversation with a French father who told him that over table he had asked his children what they wanted to be when they grew up. One of his sons had said: “a girl”.

“The father remembered that their school book taught gender theory, and that this goes against nature,” the Pope recalled. “One thing is for a person to have this tendency, and even for that person to change sex; other thing is to teach in school in this way in order to change people’s way of thinking. This is what I call ‘ideological colonizations’.”

The Pope went on to mention receiving a letter from a Spanish transsexual who shared his story of gender dysphoria.

He had suffered a lot because he felt himself to be a man, but was physically a girl. And he told his mother when he was 2o or 22, telling her that he wished to undergo a sex-change operation, and his mother asked him please not to do it while she was alive. The old lady suddenly died, and he had the operation. He is a public employee in a Spanish city, and he went to see the bishop, who had walked a lot with him — a good bishop, who ‘wasted time’ to walk with this man. Later he got married, changed his civil identity and wrote me a letter. It was a consolation for him to come with his wife — he who was she, who is he. I received them and they were happy.

Diego Neria with his book that describes living with gender dysphoria

Diego Neria with his book that describes living with gender dysphoria

Although he did not name him, Francis appears to have been referring to Diego Neria, whom he received in January last year (see CV Comment). Neria recently published a book, El Despiste de Dios (‘God’s Slip-up’), which was launched last week at a parish in Madrid. In an interview with Religión Digital, Neria said that the meeting with Francis had left him feeling “safe and clean”, and recalled the Pope telling him: “If anyone tries to shun you, believe that the problem is with the one who is doing the shunning.”

On the papal plane, Francis recalled how Neria had told him of two parish priests in the area where he lived — one who was elderly and retired, the other who was young. “Whenever the new parish priest saw him, he would shout from the pavement: ‘You’re going to hell!’ But when he met the old one, he would say: ‘How long is it since you last confessed? Come, come.'”

The Pope went on:

Life is life, and you have to take things as they come. Sin is sin. Tendencies or hormonal imbalances create a lot of problems and we have to be very careful not to say everything is the same. We have to take each case, and welcome him, walk with him, study him, discern and integrate him. This is what Jesus would do today.

Francis added: “Please, do not go around saying: ‘the Pope plans to canonize trans people! I’m already seeing the front pages …. this is a human, moral problem. And you have to solve it as you can, always with the mercy of God, with truth, but always with an open heart.”

(See reports by Crux, NCR, CNS. Full transcript of his remarks in Italian here, and in Spanish here.)

Posted in gender, Pope Francis, transgender issue

Francis warns journalists against libel and fear-mongering

The Pope today, addressing journalists. (Photo: Osservatore Romano)

The Pope today, addressing journalists. (Photo: Osservatore Romano)

[Austen Ivereigh] Journalism should never stoke social fears over forced migration nor destroy people’s lives through defamatory claims, Pope Francis said today, as he suggested three points for media to reflect on.

“Few professions have as much influence on society as journalism,” Pope Francis told a delegation of Italy’s Order of Journalists this morning in the Clementine Hall. “In a way you write the ‘first draft of history’, creating the news agenda and interpreting events for people,” he said, adding that even at at time of change in the news media, professional journalism remains “a key element for the vitality of a free and pluralist society.”

He suggested three points for their reflection: love of truth, professionalism, and respect for human dignity.

First, love of truth means not just affirming truth but living it, being honest and coherent with oneself, while acknowledging that getting at the truth was not simple and that journalism was partly about discerning between shades of grey. But he said reporters “should never say or write anything they know in conscience to be untrue.”

Second, professionalism means going beyond codes and guidelines in order to “internalize the deep meaning of one’s own work”. It also means not surrendering journalism to particular economic and political interests. “The proper task of journalism, I dare to say its vocation, is therefore … to grow the social dimension of man, to encourage the creation of a true citizenship.” Which is why, the Pope added, dictatorships of all stripes have always sought to take over the media and restrict the activities of journalists.

Third, respect for human dignity, while important in every profession, is particularly necessary in journalism, because behind the reporting of events lie emotions and concrete lives. Recalling his description of gossip as terrorism  — because people can kill with their tongues — the Pope said this was even more true in journalism because it can reach many people, “and this is a powerful weapon”. An article published today or tomorrow will be immediately replaced, Francis went on, “but the life of a person unjustly defamed could be destroyed for ever”. Journalism can and must be critical, but never become a “weapon of destruction” against individuals or entire peoples — nor stoke fears over social changes or phenomena such as migration made necessary by hunger and war.

He went to call for journalism to be “a means of building up, an element of the common good, a driver of reconciliation, that rejects the temptation to encourage conflict with language that blows on the fire of divisions, but rather favours the culture of encounter”.

“You journalists every day can remind people that there is no conflict that cannot be resolved by men and women of goodwill,” he added.

[CV translation from the Italian]

Posted in migration/refugees, peace & reconciliation, Pope Francis, Pope Francis address